Here is another example of our Ethogram code “EPTS” or Ears Pricked and Turned Sideways.  This body posture is interpreted as one of piqued interest, but a bit intimidated.  Of course, that is Axel with the T-1 tail posture over his back about to face-off with Denali.  Neither of these two wolves seems confident enough to deal with direct confrontations, which can equate to lack of leadership abilities.  Denali has an excuse;  At the age of 10 1/2, he is the oldest wolf we have managed in our Exhibit Pack.  All other wolves in our 30 year history of captive wolf management have been retired by 10 years of age.  Denali can be food possessive and determine who gets to share a carcass with him, but that doesn’t make him a leader.  It only makes him a target at times, by the one wolf that sits, waits and watches for opportunities and that wolf is Grayson.