As the weather warms, our ambassador wolves shed out their winter undercoats that kept them warm all winter long. The soft, downy fur of the undercoat serves as an excellent insulation layer in the cold but is not very comfortable when the warmer days of spring arrive. Changes in hormones, photoperiod, and temperature likely all contribute to the initiation of shedding for wolves. Rieka has shed out most of her undercoat, Caz still has some patches to go, Grayson is shedding out fairly evenly, and Blackstone still has a long ways to go! The wolf care team collects their shed fur and sends it out to some very talented fiber artists; it is crafted into items that are available in our annual Wolf Care Auction in March.

Summer also brings with it a decrease in activity during the day. Wolves are crepuscular, meaning they are most active at dawn and dusk; however wolves can become seasonally nocturnal – or more active at night – in order to avoid expending energy during the warmest times of the day. These are also the same activity patterns seen among some of their usual prey, such as white-tailed deer.

To help our ambassador wolves beat the heat (even with a full fur coat), we have several sheltered areas such as man-made dens, medical pen areas, and under the eaves of the building. Our Exhibit Pack also utilizes the shade of the vegetation and the many wolf-made dugouts throughout the Exhibit. The pond is another excellent way to provide the ambassadors opportunities to cool off; unfortunately, we have had a few small hiccups with out pond this year. A burst underground waterline had to be addressed before we could fill the pond fully. After that was repaired, the seal didn’t hold on our new pond skimmer box that was installed last fall. Without the skimmer box, we cannot install the pump or filtration system yet. We are currently waiting for supplies to be delivered to address this issue, and hope to have the pond fully functional within the next few weeks! Until then, you may see the pond at various states of fullness as we drain the water regularly to keep algae and pond scum at bay.

As we enter into the buggy season, wolf care team members apply natural, canine-safe bug repellents to our wolf ambassadors to try to ward off the mosquitos and flies. Several of these repellents are available on our Amazon Wishlist if you’d like to help keep the wolves from those pesky biters!

Axel, a nearly eight-year-old arctic wolf with a bright white coat and an excitable personality, was euthanized in April. He was a popular ambassador at the International Wolf Center, teaching thousands of visitors about wolf behaviors and adaptations.

On Friday morning, April 19, wolf care staff reviewed security camera footage and observed Axel having a seizure. He was moved to the retirement enclosure, which allowed staff to closely monitor him 24 hours a day.

On Saturday night, he exhibited a few behaviors that led staff to conclude he was feeling worse, but he still kept eating and consistently greeted the wolf care team.

The Center’s veterinarian, Dr. Kristine Woerheide, was consulted and helped develop a plan for a blood draw so lab work could be completed at the nearby Ely Veterinary Clinic in Ely, Minnesota. Unfortunately, the lab work confirmed that Axel was in severe kidney failure. The effects of extreme kidney failure likely contributed to his seizures.

After consultation with the wolf care team and Dr. Woerheide, it was agreed that because of Axel’s complex medical condition, the irreversible kidney failure and concerns about his quality of life going forward, humane euthanasia was the only option.

Axel passed away surrounded by his wolf care team.

This was a heartbreaking loss for all of us. We apologize for the delay in YouTube Pack Updates and Exhibit Pack Logs; we hope to get back to a regular schedule this summer. To learn more about Axel and his passing, we recommend watching this YouTube Pack Update that covers things more thoroughly. We also have a free webinar available to watch that celebrates Grayson’s 8th birthday, and honors Axel’s life and legacy here at IWC.

Many of you may remember from the past updates that Grayson has been having some rectal issues, specifically straining a lot and having some mucous in his scat. We first noted these issues back in February after seeing him having difficulties defecating and seeing a bit of blood in his stool, later noting some inflammation and irritation of his anus. The wolf care team monitored him closely and noted no other physical or behavioral concerns.

To help sooth any discomfort, the wolf care team applied ointment to his rear as we continued to monitor his defecations. While we would have liked to do a rectal exam on him at that time, it would have required a full chemical immobilization during a time when wolves are still feeling the heightened dominance that comes with winter breeding season hormones. In order to ensure Grayson could be reintroduced into the pack with minimal focus, our best course of action was to wait until things warmed up and the arrival of spring hormones encouraged a calmer pack.

After Retiring and saying goodbye to Axel, we decided it was a good time to immobilize Grayson and get a closer look at his rectum. Wolf Care Staff, along with our vet at the Ely Veterinary Clinic, came up with an immobilization plan to conduct a full medical exam for him, including bloodwork, cleaning up any old scabs, and getting a closer look at what may be causing the irritation of his rear. Everything went incredibly smoothly and we were able to get everything done that we had planned for.

When we separate a more dominant individual like this, we want to make sure they can be integrated back into the pack with as little focus as possible. We had Rieka, Caz, and Blackstone in one of the Retirement enclosures during Grayson’s exam and recovery, so that Grayson was the first wolf back into the Exhibit Pack. We then let Rieka back in with Grayson first, knowing that she would be the most likely to focus on him; this way, Grayson could handle her attentions without the two-year olds adding to the excitement. Grayson still felt some of the affects of the drugs used to immobilize him, but was alert enough to chase her off and defend himself when needed. Once Rieka seemed to lessen her focus on Grayson, we let Caz and Blackstone back into the Exhibit Pack. They were both very submissive and respectful of Grayson, but their excitement brought Rieka back over, as predicted. Wolf care team members remained in the enclosure with the pack to provide distractions and ensure Grayson was given space to fully recover from the drugs.

Fortunately, all of Grayson’s bloodwork came back normal, and our vet did not find any masses or tumors in his rectum, just some herniated tissue and edema. She collected a tissue sample of the area, which confirmed a diagnosis of colitis and chronic inflammation of the rectum. He is currently on an antibiotic and a probiotic that are specific for gastrointestinal health. Since the start of his treatment, we have seen significant progress in the health of the tissue. His scats have been more normal and his anus is not longer as visibly inflamed. The swelling has receded and tissue is no longer herniated.

It is also important to note that during this entire time, his behaviors remained typical and status in the pack has not lessened. In fact, Grayson appears to have gained quite a bit of confidence after Axel’s passing. We oftentimes see him posture over Caz and maintain the respect of the younger males. Rieka will still grab at his tail during times of high intensity or excitement, but Grayson has been more willing to chase her off and engage with her in social behaviors.

We will continue to monitor his health closely and keep everyone up to date with what has been going on in the pack.

After a winter with minimal snow, March surprised us with several feet of wet, heavy snowfall. The Exhibit Pack seemed to enjoy it more than the humans! Wolf activity increased during this period, but became much calmer as temperatures warmed up again. Hopefully this wet snow will add some moisture into the environment and reduce the risk of wildfires this season.

Axel appears to continue to be responding well to being off his medication for sebaceous adenitis. His coat remains thick and healthy, and his gastrointestinal upset seems to be resolved. We’re happy to share that his appetite and energy levels have returned as well. The decision to take him off his medication was a difficult one due to the unknowns, but it was worth it to see him return to his usual self. Wolf care staff will continue to monitor his condition daily and address his medical needs as they arise.

Grayson has been displaying some rectal issues in the past few weeks that we have been closely monitoring and treating with ointment as needed to reduce pain and inflammation. Thankfully there doesn’t appear to be a lot of focus from the rest of the Pack (apart from the occasional Rieka rear-grab). He continues to have a good appetite, well-formed scats, and a confident demeanor when engaging with his packmates — all of which indicate that he’s overall feeling pretty good.

Lastly, Caz and Blackstone’s birthday was this past weekend (April 6th)! They turned two years old and received a “birthday cake” made of various meats frozen together. You can watch them receive this “cake” enrichment on their birthday webinar and on the Facebook livestream from that event.

It has been a great joy and honor to know this pair of brothers. Caz is infamous in the wolf care lab for his affinity for food; there’s a drawing on the whiteboard from his pup summer to remind us to “hold my chicken, human.” Blackstone is often described by care staff as “sweet, care-free, and gentle”– however he will oftentimes get a look in his eyes that warns us he’s about to get up to some mischief. All that boy wants is a stick to carry around and a packmate to stand over.

In honor of their birthday, we have Caz & Blackstone’s Birthday Fundraiser going on until April 15th. Each of the birthday fundraisers will support the wolf care team and the work we do to care for the ambassador wolves. You can donate in honor of the 2022 pups today though our Facebook fundraiser page. Thank you to all who have donate so far — we greatly appreciate your generosity and support!

Speaking of ambassador wolf birthdays, be sure to sign up for the birthday webinars for Axel & Grayson (May 2nd) and Rieka (May 23rd)! These webinars are FREE to everyone, but you must register beforehand if you would like to watch it live. Click here to register.

We’re nearing the end of wolf breeding season in our region and continue to see a very calm and cohesive Exhibit Pack. This may in part be to the unseasonably warm weather and lack of snow the past few weeks.

We continue to see an increase in confidence from Grayson, as well as many social interactions between him and Rieka. Wolf care staff often witnesses a variety of social behaviors including jaw sparring, inhibited muzzle bites, play bows, invite chases, and sweeping tail wags — all of which point to a more social interaction rather than ritualized dominance. Caz continues to butt his way between the two, attempting to engage in this social moment as well, but it appears that Rieka and Grayson continue to focus mostly on each other during interactions such as these.

Many of these interactions result in an increase in excitement; there’s a fine line between a social interaction and ritualized dominance. With increased excitement or energy, the situation can change in intensity and intention. Wolves are incredibly opportunistic as well, so if Rieka sees Grayson shift his attention to Caz, she may go in for a quick grab at Grayson’s rear.

Grayson has been showing a significant increase in his confidence. A big part of this is likely that his brother, Axel, has been a bit more subdued the past few weeks. Grayson will oftentimes seek out Caz in and do a stand over with a high tail while Caz submits fully to him by rolling on his back. This is a pattern we have witnessed many times within the past few weeks; it seems as though Grayson recognizes Caz as the most dominant of the two younger males and is quick to ensure he stays subordinate to him within the rank order. Blackstone doesn’t display the same confidence or food possessive behaviors that Caz does, seeming to usually fly under Grayson’s radar. Even though Blackstone is lower in social rank, he seems to not stress about this and can oftentimes be seen goofing off around the enclosure.

Axel seems to be feeling better the past few days and has been much more active and engaged with the Pack. It has been a bit of a challenge getting him to take his medication daily, but he seems to have a fondness for ground beaver tail. We’re seeing a bit of inflammation return on his gums, likely due to missing several doses of his medication, but it does not appear to be irritating him or hindering his ability to eat off of the carcass, and it has reduced now that he’s been taking meds more regularly the past few days. His coat continues to look great and he remains an active, engaged member of the Pack.

Our 10th annual Wolf Care Auction is in full swing. You can browse and bid on items here until bidding ends on March 10th (at 12pm CDT). This auction directly supports our Wolf Care Department and features a lot of really great items from local artists, businesses, and of course the pieces made using the undercoat shed of Caz, Blackstone, and Rieka. Learn more about the auction on our website.

We have been witnessing the peak of winter hormones. As you may already know, right around this time of the year, wolves are in the midst of their breeding season. It’s not always universal for wolves to breed in February and March though. Wolves at lower latitudes will breed earlier than those at higher latitudes which corresponds with seasonality and ecological conditions.

Here at IWC, our ambassadors are spayed and neutered but they still experience the surge of hormones that come with the seasonal cycles. For example, overall we see increased activity and behavioral changes within the Pack such as increased tension between adult males, Axel and Grayson. We also have witnessed Rieka and Grayson engaging more and more in pair bonding behaviors, yet Rieka will still occasionally snap at his tail. We cannot know what a wolf is thinking, we can only offer interpretations and we certainly don’t know what Rieka is thinking when she engages in these social behaviors with Grayson that turn into tail grabs.

It doesn’t always end up like that. In this week’s YouTube Pack Update, you will see Rieka and Grayson doing a brief parallel walk. They are definitely engaging socially and this usually brings Caz around, although the main focus usually remains on each other. With continuous soft muzzle bites, Grayson oftentimes maintains a high tail, but with a relatively relaxed wag. If Rieka decides to roll over, that puts her in a vulnerable position. Blackstone usually doesn’t get involved, maybe because he doesn’t want to end up being the focus of Rieka and Caz, but if the opportunity presents itself to stand over Rieka he just might join. When this occurs, you can see in her facial expressions that she is not pleased. But she’ll eventually stand back up and continue engaging with Grayson, pawing at him, rolling over AGAIN and of course bringing over the yearlings.

Rieka can usual hold her own, however, especially when it’s Blackstone getting involved. You can usually tell when she decides that enough is enough: her posture is taller and tail high, portraying a more dominant or confident wolf. Even her vocalizations may shift in intensity, communicating to Blackstone that she will not tolerate his testing behaviors to her.

Many of you ask if Rieka has pair bonded yet. We would say that she has not, she is showing signs of pair bonding with Grayson, but sometimes she shows similar behaviors with Caz, the difference is that Caz does not seem to be ready for that yet.

If you are wondering where is Axel in all of these interactions, he has been spending a lot of time watching from the comforts of the slate den. He has also been behaving a bit subdued recently. It seems to coincide with some gastrointestinal discomfort which we suspect is a side effect of his treatment for his skin condition (sebaceous adenitis). We have lowered his dosage and increased carcass feedings to hopefully lessen that discomfort and keep him with a full stomach.

Finally, we continue to have wildlife visitors but we hate that they sometimes don’t make it out. The wolves encountered the mink and it did not make it. Our wolves are well fed and not really interested in consuming it but they tend to guard it from others and scent roll on it’s unique odor, which very similar to a skunk but not nearly as intense.

Thank you so much for supporting and keeping up with our ambassador wolves. For those of you who are interested in directly supporting our Wolf Care department, consider browsing our AmazonWishlist and put our 2024 Wolf Care Auction (February 26th to March 10th) on your calendar!

We have seen some colder temperatures this past week, with highs below 0°F. To help keep our wolf ambassadors warm during these colder spells, we make sure to have plenty of warm cover hay available for them to rest in, as well as several places of shelter such as dens and enclosed medical pens that they have access to at all times. The wolf care team fluffs their beds twice a day and checks to make sure their covered shelters are dry. We also will increase their feedings on colder weeks such as these, as wolves burn through a lot of energy just to stay warm and the extra calories are well used.

Many of you who view our live cameras may have seen Rieka this past week displaying some unusual swaying from side to side, starting early Sunday morning. We came in right away and gave her a physical exam and did not find any abnormalities or additional causes for concern, apart from some itchiness. She was alert and moving great with no instability, but would close her eyes and sway slightly when relaxed. Our veterinary consultant came by and did another exam on her, again finding nothing out of the ordinary. It is possible she had a response to something she ate, possibly something dropped in the enclosure by a raven, or maybe even a reaction to a mold or fungus within the environment. We’ve removed some of the older hay and replaced it with straw to ensure that anything funky was eliminated.

Rieka has shown improvements daily and has shown no swaying since Monday morning. Thankfully, this has not seemed to affect her ability to engage with the Pack. We’ve seen her continue to interact with the rest of the wolves in both a social manner and within the dominance rank order. One newer behavior we have noted from Rieka is her barking and bark howling at Grayson when he is correcting Caz. For wolves, barking can be an alert or a warning to the rest of the Pack, but it can also be a way to show aggression in defense of the pack. We have seen Rieka be defensive of Caz in the past, often in the form a grab bite to Grayson’s rear. Even with this heightened intensity in vocalizations from Rieka, we continue to see social behaviors increase between her and Grayson. It is no doubt an interesting time of year with breeding season around the corner. We will continue to monitor Rieka’s health closely, but have high hopes that whatever was in her system has left.

Caz and Blackstone mid-chase after a big snowfall.
The Exhibit Pack has finally got a substantial amount of snow. We were hit by a winter storm last week and it snowed for few days; temperatures have dropped below zero now, but the Exhibit looks stunning with a thick blanket of white. With the cold weather, we’ve been observing some increased activity with our ambassador wolves. Social chases are common within the Exhibit Pack, often involving Caz, Blackstone, and Rieka. These chases will sometimes evolve into more of a focused interaction with one of the wolves becoming the target of interest. Blackstone is oftentimes the focus of Pack activity as a lower ranking individual.  The wolf care team monitors their interactions moment by moment, being sure to the read body language, facial expression, ear posture, tail posture, and vocalizations that are used to communicate within the Pack.

Grayson continues to engage in a lot more social activity. We’ve seen Grayson approaching Rieka attempting to initiate social interactions through behaviors such as invite chasing, foreleg stabbing/pawing, whining, and tail wagging. This is a clear difference from last winter, when Grayson was not as active in initiating/seeking social interactions with her. We still see Rieka target his rear/tail at times, often occurring during heightened pack activity. Watch this week’s Pack Update on YouTube to see an example of the social behaviors observed between Rieka and Grayson, including play bows, high tail wagging, and high stepping.

We are once again thankful for the progress we’ve seen in Axel’s hair growth. Without his thick winter coat, this past week would’ve been brutal for him given the -20°F nights. Thankfully he seems to be the least bothered by the cold this winter! He continues to be an active, engaged member of the Exhibit Pack, oftentimes posturing over the younger males, as well as his brother.

As we enter the new year, we look back at 2023 and review some of the highlights and key moments during the year:

January started off with the arrival of our curator-in-training, Giselle Narváez Rivera. She has been a perfect fit here at the International Wolf Center, and we could not be more pleased with the incredible work she has done thus far. She will be taking over as the role of Wolf Curator starting this month, still with the invaluable guidance of Lori Schmidt, Wolf Curator Emeritus.

By February we had seen Rieka growing confidence within the pack, but still displaying some juvenile behaviors with the yearlings, Caz and Blackstone. No doubt having younger individuals in the Exhibit Pack has given her the opportunity to engage in some of the social juvenile interactions that she missed out on being a singleton. The wolf care team also diligently monitored Axel’s coat condition, noticing discoloration and dryness that would eventually be determined as symptoms of a much larger issue.

March brought an abundance of snow. We had seen a lot of young wolf activity around the Exhibit Pack’s secondary fence to this point. Deep snowpacks can be tougher on younger animals compared to the more matured, experienced adults. Our wolf ambassadors had plenty of cover hay to help keep them warm, as well as multiple areas of shelter to utilize in inclement weather.

Caz and Blackstone turned one year of age in April, kicking off the start of our Ambassador Wolf Birthday Fundraiser. This fundraiser allowed us to install two additional surveillance cameras that aid us in monitoring the dynamics and safety of our wolf ambassadors. On cameras like these, we were able to observe Rieka oftentimes displaying dominance over Blackstone with a squash or a stand-over.

May is shedding season for wolves. Our ambassadors shed out their undercoats, some of which was saved to be made into products for our 2024 Wolf Care Auction. This auction will take place from February 26th to March 10th. The wolf care team noticed that Axel was not only shedding his undercoat like usual, but was also loosing guard hairs. We conducted a medical exam on both him and his littermate, Grayson. A diagnosis of sebaceous adenitis was determined and his treatment plan was developed.

During June, the bugs had arrived in swarms. This caused a lot of discomfort for our wolves, as many of the biting flies, gnats, and mosquitoes were relentless. We helped to ease this discomfort by opening the Wolf Care Center building for them to use as a place of refuge from the bugs and the heat. We also applied natural insect repellents such as cedar, peppermint, and lemongrass sprays.

To combat the heat of July, many frozen enrichments were provided to our wolf ambassadors. A favorite among the Exhibit Pack were buckets of snow given out during the 4th of July, colored red, white, and blue using sport drinks. The added electrolytes were beneficial in helping the Pack stay hydrated, although they seemed to prefer scent rolling on it rather than eating it.

In August, we began to see an increase of the displays of a maturing female from Rieka, as well as the rise of a lower-ranking pack member in Blackstone. Rieka’s increased dominance over the yearling seemed to mostly fall on Blackstone, with Caz being on the receiving end of more socially-motivated interactions. This really set the tone for Blackstone’s place as the omega of the Exhibit Pack.

September was the last month of heat, and the wolves were becoming pretty indifferent to the daily enrichments. To keep them interested and stimulated, the wolf care team worked hard to come up with unique enrichments for our wolf ambassadors to receive. One of those came in the form of a scarecrow made of frozen hay and a gourd for the head (topped with a bisonhide toupée). While Blackstone may be on the lower end of the rank order, he seemed the most confident approaching the novel item. Grayson, Caz, Axel, and Rieka were a bit more neophobic in their reactions, but eventually engaged in tearing it apart.

We had really started to see the tremendous improvement in Axel’s coat by October. His oral and topical treatments were successful in growing back a thick coat, as well as maintaining adequate moisture of his skin and hair. It was apparent that he would be well equipped to handle the cold and snow of the winter season.

November started out with us looking like we’d have a normal winter; there was a good coating of snow on the ground and the Exhibit Pack was certainly beginning to display the beginnings of winter dynamics. By late November, we had observed Grayson displaying more confidence in his interactions with the rest of the pack. He was more assertive, held his tail higher, and sought out Rieka frequently to engage in social behaviors.

When December came around, it was clear that we were not going to have a normal winter. Temperatures were unseasonably warm, there was no snow, and rain was a common occurrence. At the end of the month, there was finally another snowfall that stuck, providing a blanket of white in the Exhibit.

As we look back at the year behind us, we are so incredibly gratefully for all of the support shown toward IWC and our ambassador wolves. We look forward to what the wolves will teach us in 2024. To watch the video version of this Pack Update, click here.

While the winter solstice may have passed, it doesn’t feel like winter here in Ely, Minnesota. We have had unseasonably warm temperatures with little snow accumulation. While us humans may be enjoying the lack of snow shoveling so far, the local wildlife may be impacted by the minimal snow and warmer temperatures. Deep snowpacks are beneficial to wolves in slowing down prey, aiding in their success while hunting. Ruffed grouse also rely on deep snow to roost in, creating a warm and insulated area of protection. Many species have adaptations for deep snow in northern climates, such as snowshoe hare which have large, snowshoe-like feet for traversing swiftly on top of the snow and escaping predators. Without much snow, we may see an impact on these local wildlife populations.

Here at the International Wolf Center, we are seeing mild temperaments along with the mild temperatures. This is an extremely calm pack, indicating the cohesiveness of its pack members. There are still times of heightened intensity and pack focus, all of which would fall under ritualized dominance. We continue to observe Grayson instigating a lot of social interactions with Rieka, who often responds positively with social behaviors of her own. In this week’s YouTube Update, you can see her displaying some social foreleg stabs to Grayson from atop the slate den. However, we see Caz get in the middle of Rieka and Grayson’s interactions more often than not. It appears to us that Caz, Grayson, and Rieka are the key players in the Exhibit Pack relating to pack leadership. 

As also demonstrated in this week’s YouTube, Caz remains very submissive to Grayson. We often see appeasement behaviors from Caz and Blackstone to both arctics (oftentimes more well-received by Grayson); these behaviors are in part a social greeting, but appear to also pay homage to a respected packmate. The wolf care team has not seen any indication of the Caz or Blackstone testing either arctic at this point. We’ve had two-year-olds who have tested more dominant wolves in the past, but the key here is that Axel and Grayson are still relatively young. At seven and a half years of age, they continue to show the vigor and and strength of dominant pack members. This is another reason why we try to maintain a four-year rotation for wolf pups. This management strategy has been successful for IWC in the past and will likely continue into the future management of the Exhibit Pack.

We at the International Wolf Center want to wish everyone a happy holiday season and new year! While we are closed to the public this weekend, IWC staff and the wolf care team are scheduled to be onsite to oversee the Exhibit Pack and provide some extra feedings. If you are interested in directly supporting the wolf care department this season, consider checking out our Amazon Wishlist.
For this week’s Pack Update, we wanted to focus on wolf communication. Here at the International Wolf Center, we see examples of wolf communication every single day. Wolves may communicate through vocalizations, behaviors, scent, body posture (including ear and tail position), and facial expression. This week’s YouTube Update features some examples of canid communication. While watching you will hear a dog barking. For dogs, a bark is usually nothing too serious; it may be used to express excitement, to get a human’s attention, or as a territorial display. A bark in wolf pack is quite a bit more serious; wolves may bark as an alarm signal or as a threat display. This is an excellent example of how wolves and dogs can differ in communication.

We continue to see increased social behavior between Rieka and Grayson, both wolves communicating with invite chases, high tail wags, and muzzle licks. We also often hear quite a bit of vocal communication between yearling littermates, Caz and Blackstone. While this may sound noisy at times, it’s important to remember that vocalizations such as growling do not inherently signify aggression or violence. Canids may growl as a sign for another wolf to back off and is often used to set boundaries between individuals. It is a useful tool in canid communication (especially during ritualized dominance) and may even prevent larger conflict in the long run.

A common theme we try to emphasize is that there are no bad or good behaviors; they are simply wolves being wolves.

We have also had some recent enclosure additions and updates for the Exhibit Pack. Two additional cameras have been added to our surveillance system, allowing for us to better monitor our wolf ambassadors and the facility grounds. Our cameras on Explore.org have also been serviced; the North Cam now has sound again and the South Cam has been replaced with a newer camera. Some rock work was done to the back den to prevent flooding next spring. Rock steps were added by the Boltz Byway medical pen to provide an easier way for wolves to enter and exit the kennel space.