The wolf is a carnivore, an animal suited for catching, killing and eating other creatures. Wolves prey primarily on large, hoofed mammals called ungulates. For example: In Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota, the white-tailed deer is the wolf’s primary prey, with moose, beaver, snowshoe hare and other small mammals also being taken. Elsewhere, wolves prey on caribou, musk-oxen, bison, Dall sheep, elk and mountain goats.
Wolves and deer
Additive or Compensatory Predation?
Multiple predator ecosystems
Mech, L. David (1970, reprint 1981)
The Wolf: The Ecology and Behavior of an Endangered Species
University of Minnesota Press.
Mech, L. David and Luigi Boitani, Editors (2003)
Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation
University of Chicago Press
The International Wolf Center advances the survival of wolf populations by teaching about wolves, their relationship to wildlands and the human role in their future.