From The Economist:

IN THE 20th century the wolves that populated German fairy tales—such as “Little Red Riding Hood”, published by the Grimm brothers in 1812—were an anachronism. Hunters had wiped them out over the course of the 19th century; the last was killed in 1904. For decades the animals were confined to Europe’s east. Then came the end of the cold war, improved forest conservation standards, tighter rules on hunting, and the demilitarisation of border zones. Grey wolves started moving west, crossing from Poland into Germany around the turn of the millennium.

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